Sunday, November 7, 2010

The Nanking Massacre - Review

Ini adalah massacre yang paling besar dalam sejarah. Hampir 300 000 rakyat dirogol dan dibunuh. Dalam post ni, aku cuba untuk review balik, dicampurkan bahasa Melayu dan Inggeris, dalam konteks yang lebih mudah dan ringkas.  ***Untuk menulis secara menyeluruh tentang tragedi ini, sememangnya memerlukan kajian dan pembacaan yang lebih terperinci. Untuk pembacaan lanjut, link-link ada diakhir post. 

 Pembunuhan beramai-ramai ni berlaku pada tahun 1937, selama enam minggu oleh Imperial Japanese Army. Yang menghairankan, kenapa tragedi ini tidak mendapat liputan media, dan tidak ada reviews dalam akhbar sempena mengingati peristiwa ni. (atau aku yang kurang membaca dan tak nampak). Memang boleh dikatakan, berlambak-lambak filem yang menyentuh tentang tragedi ini. Tapi, jarang sangat tragedi ini diperkatakan, atau tidak disebut-sebut dalam mana-mana ceramah atau perbincangan biasa. Satu lagi yang menjadi trademark penulis buku dan pembuat filem, dan penulis artikel yang lebih cenderung untuk memilih tajuk 'rape of Nanjing' daripada 'massacre'. Ada sebabnya. Amat sukar untuk memastikan jumlah sebenar mereka yang terkorban dalam tragedi ini, disebabkan tentera Jepun yang sama ada melupuskan mayat, merahsiakan kubur-kubur besar, pembunuhan secara 'kecil-kecilan' oleh sebilangan tentera, meraka yang mati dalam pelarian., mereka yang mati dalam tahanan, dan banyak lagi faktor yang tak dijangka, lebih-lebih lagi ketika berada dalam situasi perang yang pada ketika itu, Second Sino-Japanese War.

Tahap kekejaman Jepun memang tiada batasan. Para wanita diikat dan digantung di atas katil dan meja bogel untuk memudahkan tentera untuk merogol. '..every night, there were at least 1000 rapes' - James McCallum. Dalam internet terdapat banyak gambar wanita dan gadis Nanking diikat, dirogol, diprofanated...di.....

"Contest to kill 100 people using a sword

Gambar ni menjadi perdebatan hangat ahli sejarah. Pertandingan yang seolah-olah pertandingan sukan yang di siarkan Tokyo Nichi Nichi Shimbun menggambarkan kekejaman jepun. Bahkan berita tentang pertandingan membunuh ni mendapat perhatian meluas sehingga diupdate score pembunuhan oleh tentera Jepun. Ahli sejarah Wakabayashi mempertahankan poster itu dan mengatakan poster itu hanyalah bertujuan untuk menaikkan semangat juang tentera Jepun. 







Reverend James M. McCallum wrote in his diary: 
Never I have heard or read such brutality. Rape! Rape! Rape! We estimate at least 1,000 cases a night, and many by day. In case of resistance or anything that seems like disapproval, there is a bayonet stab or a bullet ... People are hysterical ... Women are being carried off every morning, afternoon and evening. The whole Japanese army seems to be free to go and come as it pleases, and to do whatever it pleases. Wikipedia.


John Rabe:
 In one of the houses in the narrow street behind my garden wall, a woman was raped, and then wounded in the neck with a bayonet. I managed to get an ambulance so we can take her to Kulou Hospital ... Last night up to 1,000 women and girls are said to have been raped, about 100 girls at Ginling College Girls alone. You hear nothing but rape. If husbands or brothers intervene, they're shot. What you hear and see on all sides is the brutality and bestiality of the Japanese soldiers. Wikipedia.


There are also accounts of Japanese troops forcing families to commit acts of incest. Sons were forced to rape their mothers, fathers were forced to rape daughters. One pregnant woman who was gang-raped by Japanese soldiers gave birth only a few hours later; although the baby appeared to be physically unharmed (Robert B. Edgerton, Warriors of the Rising Sun). Monks who had declared a life of celibacy were also forced to rape women. Wikipedia.


On December 13, about 30 soldiers came to a Chinese house at Hsing Lu Koo in the southeastern part of Nanking, and demanded entrance. The door was open by the landlord, a Mohammedan named Ha. They killed him immediately with a revolver and also Mrs. Ha, who knelt before them after Ha's death, begging them not to kill anyone else. Mrs. Ha asked them why they killed her husband and they shot her. Mrs. Hsia was dragged out from under a table in the guest hall where she had tried to hide with her 1 year old baby. After being stripped and raped by one or more men, she was bayoneted in the chest, and then had a bottle thrust into her vagina. The baby was killed with a bayonet. Some soldiers then went to the next room, where Mrs. Hsia's parents, aged 76 and 74, and her two daughters aged 16 and 14. They were about to rape the girls when the grandmother tried to protect them. The soldiers killed her with a revolver. The grandfather grasped the body of his wife and was killed. The two girls were then stripped, the elder being raped by 2–3 men, and the younger by 3. The older girl was stabbed afterwards and a cane was rammed in her vagina. The younger girl was bayoneted also but was spared the horrible treatment that had been meted out to her sister and mother. The soldiers then bayoneted another sister of between 7–8, who was also in the room. The last murders in the house were of Ha's two children, aged 4 and 2 respectively. The older was bayoneted and the younger split down through the head with a sword. Wikipedia.


Tapi, tentera Jepun hanya bunuh rakyat China tersebut dan rakyat asing lain, langsung tidak disentuh. 

Wilbur, National Committee YMCA, Shanghai: All foreigners [in] Nanking safe and well. Please inform interested parties.
Not only were the foreigners unharmed, but amidst the echoing sounds of gunfire as the Japanese carried out their massacre, the foreigners entertained themselves with wine, song, and dance, celebrated Christmas, and ate their fill of roast beef, roast duck, sweet potatoes, and various other fresh food. When they had exhausted their appetites for pleasure they went home.



'The memories cannot be erased'
Minnie Vautrin : "How many thousands were mowed down by guns or bayoneted we shall probably never know. For in many cases oil was thrown over their bodies and then they were burned." Minnie Vautrin suffered a nervous breakdown in 1940 and returned to the US. She committed suicide in 1941.
Ada banyak lagi kisah-kisah kekejaman melampau Jepun. Aku hanya pilih sedikit cerita dari beberapa journalist yang menyaksikan sendiri kekejaman tersebut. Link-link dibawah. 


Japanese soldiers used live victims for bayonet practice










Ditikam bayonette

Ditanam hidup-hidup

Rakyat Nanjing cuba mengebumikan sendiri rakyat
mereka yang terkorban

The sheer volume of murdered civilians posed a formidable logistical challenge when it came to disposing of the bodies. Many Chinese were conscripted into "burial teams", an experience they would later recall as horrifically traumatic.

















A boy was killed by Japanese with a butt of a rifle, because
he did not take off his hat.


Merayu nyawa
Macam mana manusia sampai tahap ni? Nobody knows....

Link-link untuk pembacaan lanjut:
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/223038.stm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nanking_Massacre
http://www.cnd.org/njmassacre/njm-tran/njm-ch11.htm
http://www.nanking-massacre.com/Nanking_Massacre_Photo_Group_One.html
 http://www.cnd.org/njmassacre/njm-tran/njm-ap3.htm#note28
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/223038.stm
http://fishsmind.spaces.live.com/blog/cns!2C4E3883FB6013F5!799.entry
http://www.historywiz.com/chinesevictims.htm

3 Comments:

Blogger Syed Ahmad Fathi said...

oo.ni abe ade bg link kat fb dulu.

November 7, 2010 at 1:46 AM  
Anonymous KS said...

ooo...sori x perasan....kurang pengetahuan am...

November 7, 2010 at 2:03 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

"Rape of Nanking" is hoax. People who believe Nanking Massacre actually took place must visit this site.People who believe Nanking Massacre actually took place must visit this site.

False Accusations of Nanking Massacre
http://www.howitzer.jp/nanking/

May 15, 2014 at 3:40 PM  

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